3 Plaut. Truc. 615 "Si tu ad legionem bellator clues, at ego in culina clueo." Er. has altered the text of the ed. Mediol. 1500, which reads "Si tu in legione bellator ciuis, at ego in culina aues." Pio corrects the last word into "Ares", observing ad loc.: "nonnulli legunt 'aries' ... In priscis tamen exemplaribus scripturn est 'ares', hoc est Mars."

     4002 Otto 692.

10 Plaut. Trin. 408-410 "confit cito; / Non hercle minus divorse distrahitur cito / Quam si tu obicias formicis papaverem" (as a consequence of homoeoteleuton, l. 409 is omitted in a large part of the textual tradition, including the ed. Mediol. 1500).

13 Stasini The name is Stasimus (Stasinus ed. Mediol. 1500).



19 Plaut. Truc. 749 f. (21 item: itidem v.l.; Acherunti: acheronti codd. et ed. Mediol. 1500; 22 Intro accipitur; acceptumst: acceptum est v.l.).

24 Catull. 3, 12.


26 hodie The reference is to the Dutch proverb "This een arm muys die maer een hol heeft"; Sartorius, Adag. 3068, quoted by Suringar 127. Harrebomée, I, p. 314.

27 cauus Horace uses this noun in connection with a mouse in Serm. II, 6, 116 f. "cavus / tutus ab insidiis".
     Plaut. Truc. 867 ff. (30 qui non cubili <uni> umquam: qui uni cubili nunquam ed. Mediol. 1500; 31 si unum ostium obsideatur, †alium [aliunde ed. Mediol. 1500] perfugium gerit†).


36 Post bellum auxilia See Adag. 2517 (Post bellum auxilium).

37 'Post ... supputatio' After Plaut. Trin. 416 f.
     Stasinus Philto is speaking here, not Stasimus (Er. follows the ed. Mediol. 1500).

41 numerare praeteritas vndas See Adag. 345 (Vndas numeras).


44 Ter. Phorm. 342 f, discussed in Adag. 1323 (Dubia coena).

45 Plaut. Trin. 470.

47 Trin. 468 ff. (48 Qui nunc? Si: Quid tune si ed. Mediol. 1500; 49 obvenerit: ut venerit v.l. et ed. Mediol. 1500; 50 cena sit: sit coena ed. Mediol. 1500).


53-54 aliud ... omnium In Adag. 4004 Er. quotes likewise a vernacular proverb that in his view dates from ancient times. Here the reference is to the proverb "Aen een tafel behoort men hem niet te schamen" (One should not feel embarrassed at the dinner table); Sartorius, Adag. 3069, quoted by Suringar 16. Harrebomée, II, p. 322. Er. further observes (l. 57) that people commonly added: "nec in lecto" ( ... at the dinner table, and neither in bed). Compare the German proverb "Zu bett und tisch sol man sich nit schemen", quoted (from Sebastian Franck) by Suringar 16.

55 Plaut. Trin. 478 f.

57 Stasini The name is Stasimus.

59-60 Sunt ... reponentes See Er.' rules for table manners, De ciuil. 4, LB I, 1039 C "Si quis alius cibum porrexerit elegantiorem, praefatus excusatiunculam recipiat, sed resecta sibi portiuncula reliquum offerat ei qui porrexerat."

62-63 puppim ac proram See Adag. 8 (Prora et puppis).



65 Plaut. Trin. 492.

68-72 Trin. 490 ff. (Di: Dei v.l. et ed. Mediol. 1500; decent opulentiae: decet opulentia v.l. et ed. Mediol. 1500; 69-71 verum nos homunculi, / Salillum animae qui quom extemplo emisimus, / Aequo: amisimus, aeque v.l. et ed. Mediol. 1500; 72 Censetur censu ad Accheruntem mortuus: censetur ad acherontem mortuus ed. Mediol. 1500).

73-74 extremo etc. Inferring on metrical grounds that two syllables are lacking in the last line in his Plautus edition, Er. proposes to supply Pelops or Croesus. The Mss., however, read "censetur censu".


76 assis See Adag. 711 (Homo tressis).
     obolus See Adag. 710 (Homo trioboli), 1802 (Quatuor obolis non aestimo), 3833 (Diobolares), 2454 (Exiguum oboli precium) and 3905 (Obolo dignus).
     teruncius See Adag. 709 (Ne teruncium quidem insumpsit).

77 Plaut. Trin. 962 (78 quoi: cui v.l. et ed. Mediol. 1500; sit Guyet: siet codd. et ed. Mediol. 1500).

79 Cos. 258 (80 Quoi).

81 Aereos ... Anglia See J.H. Monro, Money and Coinage of the Age of Er., included as an appendix in CWE, I.
     Cic. Fam. (!) V, 10 a, 1 (83 Simius, non semissis homo). The author of the letter is not Cicero, but Vatinius! The latter part of Er.' sentence lacks grammatical sequence. He means to say that Cicero calls Vatinius "semissem hominem pro 'vilissimum et contemptissimum' ".

83-84 tressis agaso ... alibi Pers. 5, 76, quoted in Adag. 711 (Homo tressis).

84 Plaut. Most. 892.


87 Ante etc. Adag. 1786 (Valere pancratice).

88 Plaut. Trin. 1030.

91-93 illud Pori ... comprehendi Plutarch recounts the anecdote more than once; Er. draws on Regum et imperatorum apophthegmata, Mor. 181 e. Er. has included the same story in Apophth. IV, Alexander Magnus 31, LB IV, 199 D, and alludes to it in Ep. 2582, ll. 20-21 "quemadmodum ille vno aduerbio 'regaliter' putabat omnia contineri." (The allusion has escaped Allen's attention.)

92 Quomodo te tracto? The use of the present tense is strange. In Plutarch's version Alexander asks King Porus: Πῶς σοι χρήσομαι; (How shall I treat you?), which Er. in his Apophthegmata correctly translates "Quo modo te tractabo?"

93-94 Nihil ... reges More specifically, rulers ought not to sleep late; see Adag. 1695 (Non decet principem solidam dormire noctem).

94 Plaut. Epid. 56. Er. has (inadvertently?) changed "interii" into perii, perhaps on the strength of "perdidit" in the next verse.

     4011 Otto 344.

98 Cic. Fam. VII, 31, 2. The name of the addressee is Curius. (99 Sulpici; 100 tuas res; 101 vellem uti pedes).

101-102 Antea etc. Plat. Leg. VI, 752 a, quoted in Adag. 14 (Sine capite fabula).



106 Cic. Fam. VII (!), 30, 1 (108 suo toto).


112 Cic. Fam. VIII, 1, 4 (114 subrostrani). Modern editors adopt a full stop after apposuit. With Te a new sentence begins.

     4014 Otto 598.

117 Stasinus The name is Stasimus. Plaut. Trin. 1061 (118 meliust).

119 Persa 273.
     Theocr. 15, 95, discussed in Adag. 3228 (Ne mihi vacuam abstergas).

121-122 Addit etc. Theocr. 15, 90 (Συρακο σίαις).

     4015 Otto 1669.

124 omnium quos terra sustinet After Plaut. Poen. 90, quoted at the end.

125 Plaut. Stich. 109 f. (127 sol videt: videt sol v.l. et ed. Mediol. 1500).

128 Bacch. 254 ff.

132 Verg. Aen. IV, 607.

134 oculus mundi Ov. Met. IV, 228 (mundi oculus).

135 Cic. Fam. IX, 26, 2 (136 loquor quod in solum, ut dicitur, et gemitum [et] in risus maximos transfero).

137-138 Citatum ... deorum etc. See Adag. 2503 (Quodcunque in solum venit); Cic. Nat. I, 23, 65. See Otto 1671.

139 Plaut. Poen. 90.


142 Plaut. Rud. 937 (143 pransurust Pareus: pransurus est codd. et ed. Mediol. 1500).

145 Cic. Fam. IX, 16, 7.

146-147 Id erat ... menestram 'Tyrotarichus' was a dish of cheese and salt fish. As regards Italian minestra, in 'Opulentia sordida' (ASD I, 3, p. 681, ll. 187 ff.) Er. describes the ingredients of the dish as it was served in the house of Andreas Asulanus (see Adag. 3570, p. 61, n.ll. 897-899).

148 gobio Er. knew the fish from Iuv. 11, 37. Cic. loc. cit. (Pompilium Demmel). For the sense see Cic. Ep. fam. ed. D.R. Shackleton Bailey, II, Cambridge, 1977, p. 337.

149 Plin. Nat. IX, 51 and XXXII, 153.

151 Plaut. Pseud. 739 "Ecquid is homo habet aceti in pectore?"

152 Pers. 5, 86.
279      Varro, Men. 484 Buecheler, quoted by Non. p. 117 Lindsay.

     4017 Otto 1258.

156 Cassa nuce non emam See Adag. 708 (Vitiosa nuce non emam).

157 Plaut. Rud. 1324.


163 Plaut. Capt. 951.
     in Captiui duo Otherwise Er. usually inflects titles, e.g. "in Menaechmis"; see ASD II, 4, p. 201, n.l. 128.

165 Capt. 951 f. (Interibi; verberea: vervecea v.l. et ed. Mediol. 1500).

167 Quidam ... 'verberea' The reference is to Giambattista Pio's Plautus commentary, who notes: "Sunt qui 'verberea' scribant, hoc est 'digna verberibus'." For Pio's commentary see ASD II, 6, p. 367, n.ll. 429-430.


172 Hic esto! [Source not identified]. Er. quotes the same phrase in Adag. 1684 (Praesens abest), ASD II, 4, p. 138, l. 179. {The source of "Hic esto!" is Augustine, Soliloquia, 2, 6, 9 (Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, 89), where Reason commands Augustine to heed the argument she is about to develop:
R. Hic esto, quantum potes, et vigilantissime attende.
A. Dic, quaeso, si quid tibi suggestum est, ne pereamus.
R. Hic esto.
A. Ecce habes me nihil aliud agentem.

Erasmus quotes the same phrase in Adag. 1684 ("Praesens abest"), ASD II, 4, p. 138, 179. He once uses it in a satirical context, namely in his colloquy Conuiuium grammaticorum, ASD I, 3, p. 586, 20: "Ergo hic estote omnes aures simul adhibentes et animos." The source reference has to be supplied in the volumes concerned. (A. Wesseling, Humanistica Lovaniensia, Vol. L, 2001, Leuven, p. 457)}

173 Hoc age! Suet. Cal. 58, 2.
     Plaut. Capt. 930 and 967.


176 in aliena ... harena For the expression, which aptly suits the context, see Adag. 2562 (In tua ipsius harena).
     inducti ... comici After Plaut. Poen. 581, but the reading proposed by Er. is to be rejected in the light of Mss. evidence. His explanation (ll. 177-178) is therefore incorrect.

178 Poen. 581 (179 edepol: aedepol ed. Mediol. 1500; condoctior: indoctior ed. Mediol. 1500, inductior v.l.; quam tragoedi aut comici: quant in tragoedia comici ed. Mediol. 1500).

180 Colabiscus The correct form is Collybiscus (Colabiscus ed. Mediol. 1500).

182 Poen. 580 (condocta: conducta v.l. et ed. Mediol. 1500).


185 Odium ... vocabulo See Otto 315-333.
     Hor. Epist. I, 17, 30 f. "cane peius et angui / vitabit". Er. quotes from memory.

186 Plaut. Amph. 679 f. (187 Expectatun: expectatus ed. Mediol. 1500; 188 salutat magis haud quisquam).


192 The quotation is not found in Plautus, but in a supplement to the Amphitruo composed by humanists; see Adag. 3716, p. 139, n.ll. 204-207. The lines appear in Braun, Scenae suppositiciae, p. 132.

196 Plaut. Poen. 530 (197 cursu vel grallatorem).

198-199 'Gralae' ... antiquitas After Non. p. 165 Lindsay "'Glaratores' sunt colobathrarii; 'gralae' enim sunt fustes, qui mittuntur" (quis innituntur Pio). - Er. interprets 'colobathrarius' (Non.) as καλοβάτης; see l. 199.

199-200 καλοβάται ... funambuli See G.Goetz et al. (ed.), Corpus glossariorum Latinorum, I, s.v. καλοβάτης: funambulus; II, p. 337: καλοβατησσχοινοβατης: funambulus. Er. knew the word 'schoenobatae' also from Iuv. 3, 77.


201 Non. loc. cit. (n.ll. 198-199). In the Aldine edition of 1513, col. 1269, ll. 44 ff. the passage reads: "Grallatores sunt colobathatrari; grallarae enim sunt fustes, qui mittuntur."

202 Plaut. Men. 888.

204 Poen. 532.

205 Poen. 506 f. (206 quam corbitae sunt).

207 Poen. 513.

     4023 Cf. Otto 498.

210 The quotation is not found in Plautus, but in a supplement to the Amphitruo composed by humanists; see Adag. 3716, p. 139, n.ll. 204-207. The line appears in Braun, Scenae suppositiciae, p. 132.


214 Qui ... libertatem After Publil. Syr. 48 Friedrich "Beneficium accipere libertatem est vendere." Walther 2002. Suringar 246.

215 Plaut. Asin. 87.

218 Ter. Phorm. 990 ff.


220-221 Manet ... abominantes According to a timehonored belief human saliva has magical power. People were wont to spit (usually three times) in order to avert such evil as demons, witches, and the evil eye. See R. Ellis, A Commentary on Catullus, Oxford, 18892, p. 174; H. Bachtold-Staubli, ed., Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens, VIII, Berlin, 1936-37, s.v. spucken, 326. Hadrianus Junius recalls that it is usual for the Dutch to admonish someone uttering a term of abuse or an obscenity to 'spit it out' (Adagiorum centuriae VIII cum dimidia, Basileae, 1558, 801 'In solum': "vulgaris lingua monet dicterium aut inhonestius verbum despuere soloque allidere").

221-226 Id ... Plinius The latter part of the sentence lacks sequence; Er. worked hurriedly.

221-223 veterum ... comitialem After Plin. Nat. XXVIII, 35. The negative qualification of the ancient belief as superstitious is Er.' own.

224-225 quod in ... fieri The former etymology is probably Er.' own, the latter is taken from Fest. p. 268 Lindsay. - The ancients regarded an occurrence of epilepsy as ominous.

225-227 in admouendis ... expuebant After Plin. loc. cit., 35-36.
    contra improbae etc. Plin.: "Veniam quoque a deis spei alicuius audacioris petimus in sinum spuendo."

227 Plaut. Capt. 550 ff. (228 insputatur Pylades: sputatur codd. et ed. Mediol. 1500; morbus interdum venit; 230 Ain, verbero, / Me rabiosum atque insectatum esse hastis meum memoras patrem, / Et eum morbum mi [mihi codd. et ed. Mediol. 1500] esse, ut qui me; 233 iste; 234 is).

235 Plaut. Asin. (!), 39.


240 Cic. Fam. VII (!), 29, 1.

243 Fam. VII, 30, 2 (haberem socium studiorum meorum; 244 quoniam proprium te esse; 245 nexo; est cuiusque proprium).



251 Cic. Att. I, 1, 1 (253 putent: putant v.l.).

256 perfricare frontem See Adag. 747 (Faciem perfricare. Fronds perfrictae).
     premere pollicem See Adag. 746 (Premere pollicem. Conuertere pollicem).

256-257 aliaque etc. See Adag. 748-750.


259 Hom. Il. XXII, 268, quoted in Cic. Att. I, 15, 1.

263 omnesque ingenii neruos Er. discusses this Ciceronian phrase in Adag. 316 (Omnibus neruis) and 2868 (Omnibus neruis).


265 Antea   Adag. 2107 (Beneuolus trucidator).

266 Cic. Att. I, 16, 3 (269 secerneret; 270 diffidere).


273 Cic. Att. I, 16, 1 (274 respondebo: ego respondebo v.l. et ed. Basil. 1528).

275 ὑστερόπρωτον A rare form, which is attested only once; Corpus glossariorum Latinorum, ed. G. Goetz, II, Lipsiae, 1888, p. 157 "Praeposterum υστεροπρων" (ὑστερόπρωτον v.l.).


279 Cic. Att. I, 16, 5.

280-281 'consessus' ... iudicum See Adag. 2431 (Amphyctionum consessus).

282 Att. I, 16, 3.

284 non ... aerati Modern editors read "non tam aerati quam, ut appellantur, aerarii" (not moneyed so much as, what they are actually called, bribetakers); see Shackleton Bailey ad loc. (Cicero's Letters to Atticus, I, Cambridge, 1965, p. 315).

     4032 Collect. 776 (Pandere vel contrahere vela). Otto 1857.

289 Cic. Att. I, 16, 2.

292 Hor. Carm. II, 10, 22 ff. (293 sapienter idem).



299 Hom. Il. XVI, 112, quoted in Cic. Att. I, 16, 5 (301 ὅππως δὴ πρῶτον πῦρ ἔμπεσε). Er. follows the Basel 1528 edition of Cicero.

305 Hom. Il. II, 484 (306 ἔχουσαι).


309-310 ire in malam crucem Plaut. Cas. 641, Poen. 347, Pseud. 335; Ter. Phorm. 368. - ad coruos See Adag. 1096. - ad Cynosarges See Adag. 2070.

310-313 in dierectum ... 'in diem erectos' Non. p. 70 Lindsay.

311 Varro, Men. 142 Cebe IV, quoted by Non. p. 70.

313 in diem Non.: "ad diem".

315 Sub dium rapiuntur Hor. Carm. I, 18, 13 "sub divum rapiam."

316 Cic. Tusc. III, 5, 10.


318-319 Olim ... mittere Gell. X, 8.

319 Cic. Att. I, 16, 11.

322 Att. VI, 1, 2 (ες).


328-329 Dictum ... fabas See Adag. 2, viii (A fabis abstineto).

330 Cic. Att. I, 16, 13 (331 antea; mimum: nummum v.l. et ed. Basil. 1528). For the expression "fabam mimum" see Otto 1117.


334 Cic. Att. I, 20, 3 (336 optimatem: optimatum v.l. et ed. Basil. 1528; 338 τοῖς: οἷς ed. Basil. 1528).

334-335 Rhintonis See Shackleton Bailey's note ad loc. (Cicero's Letters to Atticus, Cambridge, 1965-1970); Kaibel, p. 189.


343 Alias   Adag. 2193 (Quid Achiuos a turre iudicatis?).

344 Cic. Att. II, 7, 4 (348 ὑπὸ; στέγῃ πυκνῆς: στέγῆς ed. Basil. 1528; ψακάδος: εὔκηλος ed. Basil. 1528).


347 Soph., fr. 636 TrGF IV. Er. himself notes that the Greek line is corrupt. It has escaped his attention that a correct and fuller version is found in Stobaeus, IV, 17, 12, on the strength of which the quotation in Cicero's letter can be restored in the following way: κἂν ὑπὸ στέγῃ / πυκνῆς ἀκούειν ψακάδος εὑδούσῃ; φρενί. The sense is: "(I want) beneath my roof with mind asleep to hear the pattering shower". See Shackleton Bailey's note ad loc. (Cicero's Letters to Atticus, Cambridge, 1965-1970).

352 Pro εὒκολος ... ψάκαλος Er. knew this variant reading through a marginal note in Cratander's edition of Cicero (Basil. 1528).

     4039 {The subject of this adage is a line from the Iliad quoted by Cicero (Ad Atticum, 2, 9, 3). One may note, however, that the title ("Qui prior laesit") is taken from a line in Terence, Erasmus' favorite poet, namely from the prologue to Eunuchus, 6 "quia laesit prior". He discusses part of this prologue and the philological problems involved in a colloquy, entitled Conuiuium poeticum, ASD I, 3, p. 347, 89-116. (A. Wesseling, Humanistica Lovaniensia, Vol. L, 2001, Leuven, p. 457-458)}

356-357 Cic. Att. II, 9, 3. Hom. Il. XXIV, 369.

357-360 Nam ... χαλεπήνῃ; Cic. loc. cit. (358 cogit, at Gronovius: cogitat codd. et ed. Basil. 1528; 359 defendere: offendere v.l. et ed. Basil. 1528; est proprium: proprium est v.l. et ed. Basil. 1528; 360 ὅτε τις: ὅστις ed. Basil. 1528).


364 Non. p. 138 Lindsay (Plocio). Caecilius, fr. 176 Ribbeck CRF, p. 75.

366 alibi   Adag. 3143 (Quae dantur).


369-370 Cic. Att. II, 16, 4 (374 emendem et edam). Modern editions give only the first half of the Homeric line (Il. VI, 181): "πρόσθε λέων, ὄπιθεν δὲ - quid dicam nescio." Cicero breaks off, since the rest of the line is not appropriate. The rest of the line has been supplied in the Basel 1528 edition of Cratander.


377 Cic. Att. IV, 11, 2 (379 πάντ᾿ Victorius: πᾶν codd. complures et ed. Basil. 1528, πάντα in margine).
     hunc senarium Menander, Epitr. 2 Koerte I, p. 9.

383 Cic. loc. cit. (perscribe; 384 Appuleia).

385 πάντα περὶ πάντων Cic. Fam. XII, 20 and XV, 17, 1.


387 de gradu deiici See Adag. 298.

388 Cic. Att. IV, 18, 2.

390 Cic. loc. cit. (dirumpuntur; aliquid posse: posse aliquid v.l. et ed. Basil. 1528).



395 Cic. Att. II, 9, 2.

396 Cic. loc. cit. (Vatini strumam sacerdoti διβάφῳ vestiant).

398 Fam. II, 16, 7. The name of the addressee is Caelius.

399-400 Dibaphi ... vti Actually 'dibaphus' denotes a magistrate's robe.

403 Mediocris ... inuidiae See Adag. 3759 (Cognatio mouet inuidiam).


406 Antea   Adag. 401.

407 Cic. Att. VI, 3, 1 (sane; 408 res enim est in [enim om. ed. Basil. 1528]). The provenance of the Greek fragment is unknown.


416 Cic. Att. IX, 13, 4.

418 Ov. Met. II, 397.

419 Cic. loc. cit. (420 ΙΙλάτων; 420-421 ἀνάγκαις: ἀνάγκαις εἰσὶν ed. Basil. 1528). After Plat. Epist. 7, 329 d.

422-424 ille mimus etc. The line has traditionally been attributed to Publilius Syrus, but wrongly so. See Publil. Syr. Mimi Sententiae, p. 97, no. 54 Friedrich "Cogit rogando, cum rogat potentior."


426 Cic. Att. XIV, 13, 5 (427 abhorret; esse quicquam).

430 After Iuv. 6, 268 f.


433 Cic. Att. XIV, 22, 2 (Pilia; 435 τόνδ᾿). The provenance of the Greek line is unknown. { See Nauck, Tragica Adespota fr. 105. (J.J. van Poll)}

437 Cic. loc. cit. (438 Itaque me I.M.).

439 μὲν Cic: ἐν (see 1. 435 above). The mistake may well go back to Er. himself, who used to work hurriedly. There is a possibility that he intends to correct εν, but in such cases it is usual for him to make an explicit observation.

439-440 illo etc. Er. quotes from memory a fragment of Sophocles, fr. 855 TrGF IV, which is transmitted by Plutarch, Mor. 504 c and 810 b: Οὐ μέμφομαι σε· δρῶν γὰρ εὖ κακῶς λέγεις. He translates the line in Apophth. VI, Varie mixta 82, LB IV, 293 D: "De te queror nil: male loquens facis bene", explaining Nestor's words as follows: "Aliquid concedendum est viris fortibus deque republica bene meritis, et bene pensat linguae vitium qui factis egregius est." In Lingua (ASD IV, 1A, p. 72, ll. 502 f.) Er. attributes the same fragment mistakenly to Homer: "Atque Aiaci quidem intemperantius maledico non indignatur apud Homerum Nestor, quod linguae vitium bene gerendae rei strennuitate pensaret".



443 Hom. Il. XVI, 385 f., quoted by Cic. Ad Q. fr. III, 7, 1 (445 δή ῥ᾿ ἄνδρεσσι; 450 οἳ βίῃ εἰν).


455 Theocr. 7, 45 f.

460 Allegoria prouerbialis est There is no evidence that the image was in use as a proverb.

461 Schol. ad loc., p. 90 Wendel.

462 paulo post Theocr. 7, 47.


465 Cic. Ad Q. fr. III, 5, 4.

467 Hom. Il. VI, 208, quoted by Cic. loc. cit. (πολλὸν ἀριστεύειν καὶ ὑπείροχος: αἰὲν ἀριστεύειν καὶ ὑπείροχον ed. Basil. 1528).

469 Hom. Il. VI, 208 = XI, 784.

472 Cic. Fam. XIII, 15, 2.


474-476 Et hodie ... amputassem I have been unable to document this from Dutch sources; even Suringar (21) fails to give a vernacular equivalent. Wander, III, s.v. Ohr, 1134, quotes "Ich will ihm die Ohren abreissen" (I want to tear his ears off; no source given).

476 Cic. Ad Q. fr. III, 4, 2 (477 venisset, cum Aesernino: venisset si cum Esernino ed. Basil. 1528; viderer: videretur ed. Basil. 1528; 478 redisset).

482-483 De Esernio etc. Adag. 1498 (Esernius cum Pacidiano). - Er.' reference to Horace is due to a lapse of memory. The source of the expression is Lucilius (fr. 151 f. Krenkel), quoted by Cic. Opt. gen. 6, 17.


485 Hac ... epistolis Cicero uses the verb, which he coined himself, only twice (Att. VII, 21, 1 and XIV, 22, 2).

486 vultu fronteque See Adag. 1304 (Ex fronte perspicere).

487 Verg. Aen. I, 209.


490 Theocr. 17, 44 (491 ῥηίδιοι: ῥηίδιαι v.l.).


495 Hor. Carm. IV, 5, 23.

     4055 Otto 1461.

501-502 Praeficae ... praedicarent After Non. p. 92 Lindsay and Fest. p. 250 Lindsay. Er. has added the same passage to Adag. 1611 (Non est laudandus etc.) in the 1533 edition; see ASD II, 4, p. 94, ll. 181 ff.

502-503 aliis ... praefectae After Fest. p. 250.

504 Lucil., fr. 959 f. Krenkel, quoted by Non. p. 93 (505 funere / praeficae).

507 Hor. Ars 431 f. (508 qui conducti: quae conductae Lucil., cf. l. 505).

510 Plaut., fr. 81, quoted by Non. p. 92 (511 superaboque omnis).

513 Naevius, p. 231 Marmorale (fr. 129 Ribbeck CRF), quoted by Fest. p. 250.

516 Plautus etc. See Non. p. 93, but Er. quotes directly from Plautus, Truc. 495 f. (519 quae alios).


521 Non. p. 151 Lindsay (522 Socratis calvum; ericium e pilis albis cum proboscide). Varro, Men. 490 Buecheler.

526-527 Aldina ... 'caluum' The reference is presumably to the 1527 edition (not seen by me); that of 1513 reads "Socrates galbam". Aldus printed Niccolò Perotti's Cornucopiae along with works of Varro and the vocabularies by Nonius and Festus in 1513, 1517 and 1527; see A.A. Renouard, Annales de l'imprimerie des Alde, I, Paris, 1825, pp. 151, 190, 245.

527 Lectio ... 'callum' One may note that modern editions of Nonius read "calvum".

529-530 Socrates ... humi See e.g. Plat. Symp. 219 e-220 b; Diog. Laert. II, 27; Xen. Mem. I, 6, 2.

531-532 quid narrent ... Platonis Diog. Laert. VI, 40 has it that Plato had defined man as an animal, two-footed and featherless. Whereupon Diogenes plucked a cock and brought it into the lecture-room, saying: "Here is Plato's man." Er. recounts the story in Apophth. III, Diogenes 59, LB IV, 178 C.

533 cognatam literam Er. intends to say rather that the letters c and g denote similar sounds than that these letters (C and G) are similar in form (or does he mean both of these alternatives? ).

535-536 Vulgus ... euelle! Er. refers to the same Dutch expression in Adag. 1737 (Caluum vellis), ASD II, 4, p. 174, ll. 530 ff. "Quin hodie quoque vulgus, vbi significat nihil esse quod adimatur, volam manus ostendens iubet inde velli quippiam, quod ea corporis pars nemini non sit calua." Sartorius, Adag. 427, gives the expression as "Neemt daer wat wt" (Take what's in here! [lit.:] Take some from this here!, that is, from an empty hand). Suringar 32.


     4057 Otto 1248.

539 Non. p. 109 Lindsay. Lucil., fr. 676 Krenkel.

542 Croesum See Adag. 574 (Croeso, Crasso ditior).

     Iro See Adag. 576 (Iro, Codro pauperior).

546 Fest. p. 31 Lindsay "'Bulgas' Galli sacculos scorteos appellant." Er. has taken the synonymous words folliculos, crumenas, sacculos from Non. p. 109, adding scorteos, hoc est e pellibus factos from Fest. p. 443.

549 alibi Adag. 1744 (Nudus tanquam ex matre).

     4058 Otto 935.

551 Non. p. 146 Lindsay "Idem (sc. Lucilius Satyrarum) VII: esuriente leoni ..." (VII Mueller: uti codd.; esuriente: esurienti codd.). Er. follows the Aldine 1513 ed., which reads "Idem, uti esurienti leoni ...". See Lucil. fr. 277 Krenkel.

554-555 Metrum durius ... Lucilii According to Hor. Sat. I, 4, 8 Lucilius was "durus componere versus".

556-557 Clauam etc. Adag. 3095 (Clauam extorquere Herculi) and 1680 (Lupo agnum eripere postulant).


559 Halopantam ... mentientem After Fest. p. 90 Lindsay.
     Plaut. Curc. 462 f. (560 lepidum lepide hunc nactust Phaedromus [Phedromus v.l.]; 561 Halophantam an sycophantam †hunc magis hoc† esse dicam nescio).

562 Verba sunt militis Some Mss. and the ed. Mediol. 1500 give the passage to the soldier, not to the Choragus, as modern editors do.

563 Non. p. 172 Lindsay.

565 Fest. p. 90 "Halapanta significat omnia mentientem, ab eo, quod halet omnia. Ἅλην enim Graeci τὴν πλάνην, id est fallentem, appellant." Er. follows the ed. Mediol. 1500. In doing so, he has changed "Halapanta" into Halopanta.

566-567 Quantum ... nescio Er. also complains about the faulty and fragmentary state of Festus' vocabulary in Adag. 1924, ASD II, 4, p. 292, ll. 265 ff.; see n. ad loc.

568 Aldina aeditio That is, the Festus edition of 1513, which reads "Halapanta significat omnia mentientem, ab eo quod habet [!] omnia; alin enim graeci τὴν πλάνην, idest fallaciam dicunt." (For this edition see Aldo Manuzio editore. Dediche, prefazioni, note ai testi, ed. C. Dionisotti-G. Orlandi, Milano, 1975, no. 80.)

569 ἀλέω Er. erroneously takes this to mean 'err, wander'; see Adag. 3791, p. 173, n.l. 10.

571 ἁλός Er. means indeed 'salt'.

574 schema προσονομασίας Er. frequently uses prosonomasia instead of the correct term 'paronomasia'; see Adag. 3730, p. 145, n.l. 377.

574-576 'halophanta' ... vectigalibus Through conjecture Er. arrives at the reading adopted in modern editions, of Plautus, that is. The word halophanta, supposedly formed by Plautus, is unknown anyway. The explanation given by Er. is based on the assumption that the Athenian state charged excise on salt. - telonas A Grecism, meaning 'taxcollectors'; it is used by other humanists too; see R. Hoven, Lexique de la Prose Latine de la Renaissance, Leiden, 1994, s.v.

576-577 sycophantae ... Athenis Probably after Fest. p. 392. See Adag. 1281 (Sycophanta).



583 Quadra propria A variation of Iuv. 5, 2 "aliena vivere quadra"; see Adag. 2, iii (Choenici ne insideas), ASD II, 1, p. 90, ll. 822 f. "Parasiticum enim ac foedum aliena viuere quadra nec vllam artem callere, qua possis οἰκόσιτος viuere."

584 Et hodie ... sumptum The reference is to a vernacular expression, perhaps "sijn eigen kantken knaghen" (to chew one's own chunk of bread), quoted by Suringar 180 from Servilius, Adagiorum epitome, p. 216. For this expression see Woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal, VII, 1, s.v. kant, 1338.

585 Non. p. 195 Lindsay (ligurrire). Catull., fr. 2 Schuster.

586-587 dii ... οἰκόσιτοι After Lucian. De sacr. 9. Cf. Moria, ASD IV, 3, p. 76, ll. 98 ff.: Without the help of the god of riches the Olympic gods "aut omnino non essent aut certe οἰκόσιτοι sane quam frigide victitarent."

587 Plaut. Persa 122, quoted by Non. p. 263.


591 Lucil., fr. 1001 f. Krenkel, quoted by Non. p. 204 Lindsay (592-593 sperans aetatem eadem [eandem codd.] <me> / haec proferre potesse et mansum ex ore daturum).

594-595 M. Tullius etc. See Adag. 1933 (Praemansum in os inserere).


597-598 Intimum ... diximus See Adag. 326 (Toto pectore).

598 ex intimis praecordiis I have not found an exact source for this phrase. For the combination "intima praecordia" see Verg. Aen. VII, 347; Ov. Met. IV, 507; Her. 16, 135.

598-600 medullitus ... oculitus Non. p. 215 Lindsay.

599 Plaut., fr. 67, quoted by Non. p. 215 "Plautus Cornicula: Amant ancillam meam Pheidulium oculitus." The Aldine 1513 ed. of Nonius reads "Plautus, corni qui amant ancillam meam fedulium oculitus."

601 Plaut. Most. 311.

603 Most. 167 "Volo me placere Philolachi, meo ocello, meo patrono." Er. has slightly changed the text of the ed. Mediol. 1500, which reads "Volo meo placere Philolacheti, meo ocello, meo patrono."


605-606 Dictum ... vires See Adag. 2975 (Imperator bonus et idem robustus miles), ASD II, 6, p. 574, ll. 591 ff.

606 Titinius, fr. 127 Ribbeck CRF, p. 178, quoted by Non. pp. 28, 274 and 807 Lindsay "Titinius Setina: Sapientia gubernator navem torquet, non valentia."

     4064 Otto 464, 1.

609-610 Non. p. 224 Lindsay (610 Zenon). Varro, Men. 148 Cebe IV.

612 Idem Varro, Men. 56 Cebe II, quoted by Non. loc. cit. (Idem Bimarco: ut novum cribrum). The Aldine edition of Nonius of 1513, col. 1283, ll. 17 ff. reads: "Idem Bimargo: Ut novum cribrum novo paxillo pendeat."

     4065 Otto 371.

617 Lucil., fr. 799 Krenkel, quoted by Non. p. 258 Lindsay (618 sarcinatorem [sic et ed. Ald. 1513]).


619-620 eliso s in 'sarcinatoris' According to Er. it is necessary to elide the final s of sarcinatoris for a correct scansion of the trochaic line in question. Modern editors, however, read "sarcinatorem", which solves the problem (see the final note).

620 'Sarcinator' ... sarciendo The editors of the Oxford Latin Dictionary endorse the same view. Lewis and Short, by contrast, derive it from 'sarcire'.

620-621 illo ... optimum Er. has distilled this maxim from Cic. Ad Q. fr. I, 1, 46, quoted in Adag. 135 (Supremum fabulae actum addere), ASD II, 1, p. 250, ll. 868 ff. There (1. 878) Er. quotes the same line of Lucilius. He apparently interprets it to mean 'A good mender sews his last bit of patchwork best.' Modern editors of Lucilius, who read "sarcinatorem" with the Mss., interpret the line differently: "sei der trefflichste Flickschneider, stopple am besten ein Flickwerk zusammen" (Krenkel, fr. 799). Charpin, II, p. 175, translates likewise "c'est un excellent ravaudeur; il coud les pièces à la perfection."


625-626 Praelium ... dicitur After Non. p. 703 Lindsay.

627 Non. loc. cit. (629 vei Mueller: vi et codd., Krenkel; 630 saepe est multis). See Lucil. fr. 683 f. Krenkel.

631 Vir ... pugnabit See Adag. 940.


633 Ps. Lucian. Ὠκύπους 58. Er. has changed Πάλιν τρέχ᾿ to Τρέχ᾿ αὖθις.
     tragoedia In the introduction to Swift-of-foot the poem is described as a 'play' (δρᾶμα). Er. translates 'tragedy', perhaps jokingly.

635 nec vllam ... salis Catull. 86, 4 "nulla in tam magno est corpore mica salis"; the line is discussed in Adag. 1251 (Salsitudo non inest illi).

639-640 Ps. Lucian. loc. cit. (Πάλιν τρέχ᾿ codd., sic et ed. Ald. 1522; εἶπεν ὃς: εἶπον ἢ cod. et ed. Ald.; 640 κουριῶν: κουρέων codd. et ed. Ald.).

641 Si legas εἶπεν ὃς Er.' conjecture has been adopted by modern editors.

642-643 Podagrosi ... tonsoribus It may be recalled that barbers also acted as chiropodists (see Plaut. Aul. 312) and, at least in Er.' times, even as physicians. In Adag. 570 (Notum lippis ac tonsoribus) Er. observes in fact: "lippi in tonsorum officinis desident, expetentes remedium oculorum."

643 et tamen ... laesum Er., who suffered from gout himself, observes in Adag. 3821 (De reduuia queritur): "Hoc affectu sunt complures vt etiam apud medicum dissimulent morbum, praecipue podagrici."

648 pro κουρέων legendum κουριῶν This conjecture, too, has been adopted by modern editors.

651 Hor. Epist. I, 7, 51.

     4068 Otto 1325.

657 Plaut. Bacch. 433 f.

660 In arcanis etc. Only in Esth. 14, 16 and Is. 64, 6.


     4069 Otto 1503.

664 Plaut. Bacch. 680 f. (665-666 Oppido: Omne oppido ed. Mediol. 1500).

667 Cum puluisculo ... sunt See Adag. 1785.
     Plaut. Rud. 845.


670 Plaut. Bacch. 630 (671 Heiia: Eia v.l. et ed. Mediol. 1500; pretist: preciist ed. Mediol. 1500).

673 Persa 283 (674 perciderim).


676 Plaut. Bacch. 911 f. (677 audiet).

679 Quidam eruditi The reference is to Giambattista Pio and his commentary on Plautus (Milan, 1500), ad loc.

679-681 Lamiam ... vulgo Regarding the burning passion of Demetrius Poliorcetes for the courtesan Lamia see Athen. XIII, 577 c-f and Plut. Demetr. 27.

682-684 Vero propius ... filium Er. owes this suggestion to Pio, who knew the title Demetrius from the grammarian Diomedes, I, Keil, Gr. Lat. I, p. 402, ll. 12 f. The comedy in question is not extant. The assumption that Plautus refers to some lost play is in itself correct.

684-686 Talis ... militiam Ter. Heaut. 97-117.


691 Qui ... ingressi See Adag. 3859 (Summo pede).

692-694 Cic. Fam. XII, 16, 2.

     4073 Otto 1419.

696 Veg. (!) Mil. III, 14 (697 cum ad spathas et ad pila). Er. has used Cratander's edition of Cicero (Basel, 1528). It includes an Appendix de re militari, on which Cratander notes (III, f. 385): "incerto autore, quanquam Ciceroni tribuatur, haud scio quam recte". I am indebted to U. Dill for information given. For the reception of Vegetius see J.A. Wisman's article in F.E. Cranz, ed., Catalogus translationum et commentariorum: Medieval and Renaissance Latin Translations and Commentaries VI, Washington, 1986, pp. 175-184.

699 alicubi See the close of Adag. 329 (Cominus atque eminus).


703 qui pacem ... praetendebant See e.g. Verg. Aen. VIII, 116 "paciferaeque manu ramum praetendit olivae" and the comments by C.J. Fordyce on Aen. VII, 154.

703-704 'Velatas' ... pro 'vittatis' 'Vittae' were the strands of wool with which the olivebranch of the suppliant was wreathed; see Verg. Aen. VIII, 128 "et vitta comptos voluit praetendere ramos."

704 Plaut. Amph. 256 f.



708 Aristot. Rhet. III, 11, 6 (αὐτοῖς: ἑαυτοῖς v.l.).

709 Aristot. loc. cit. Stesichorus, fr. 104 b PMG, p. 140.

713 idem etc. Rhet. II, 21, 8.

716 Cicadae ... symbolum See Adag. 900 (Cicada vocalior).

717-718 Vnumquodque ... instructum est Er. develops this theme in Adag. 3001 (Dulce bellum inexpertis), LB II, 952 B.

719 vel album vel nigrum For this phrase see Adag. 599 (Albus an ater sis nescio).

720 In Plat. Min. 320 e Socrates advises μηδέποτε ἀπεχθάνεσθαι ἀνδρὶ ποιητικῷ μηδενί. I owe this reference to S.R. Slings.

721 Hor. Epist. II, 2, 102; Serm. I, 4, 34 "Faenum habet in cornu". The latter expression is the subject of Adag. 81.

723-728 Doctis ... insideant The reference is to Pier Vettori (Victorius) and his Commentarii in tres libros Aristotelis de arte dicendi. Vettori observes (ed. Florentiae, 1548, p. 385): "significavit (Stesichorus) obscure quod incommodum illos expectaret, qui contumelia adversos potentes fortunatosque populos ac reges uterentur. Agri enim postea ipsorum devastantur et omnes ita inde arbores excinduntur ut ubi considant cicadae non habeant, sed humi cogantur cantilenam illam suam exercere." Modern commentators of Aristotle's treatise give the same explanation.

723-724 cicadae ... canere Verg. Ecl. 2, 13 "sole sub ardenti resonant arbusta cicadis."

728-730 Fortasse etc. Er.' memory fails him; there is no evidence that Gregory of Nazianzus ever wrote a commentary on any treatise by Aristotle. Er. is thinking back to his stay in Venice (1508), where the members of the Aldine circle had received him well, as he relates in Adag. 1001 (Festina lente), LB II, 405 D. Aldus Manutius himself, Janus Lascaris, Baptista Egnatius and other humanists had shown him Greek manuscripts that he had never seen before. In this connection Er. mentions the alleged work by St. Gregory for the first time, claiming that he had been shown "Aristotelis Rhetorica cum scholiis Gregorii Nazianzeni". See also D.J. Geanakoplos, Byzantium and the Renaissance. Greek Scholars in Venice, Hamden, Conn., 19732, pp. 256-278; L.-E. Halkin, Ér. en Italie, in: J.-C. Margolin, ed., Colloquia Erasmiana Turonensia, I, Toronto, 1972, p. 42. For the works of Gregory of Nazianzus see B. Altaner-A. Stuiber, Patrologie. Leben, Schriften und Lehre der Kirchenväter, Freiburg, 19809, pp. 298 ff.; F. Lefherz, Studien zu Gregorius von Nazianz: Mythologie, Überlieferung, Scholiasten, Bonn, 1958; A.C. Way, in: P.O. Kristeller-F.E. Cranz, ed., Catalogus translationum et commentariorum: Medieval and Renaissance Latin Translations and Commentaries II, Washington, 1971, pp. 43-192.


732 Aeschin. 1, 128. Eurip., fr. 865 Nauck.

737-740 Eodem etc. Hes. Erg. 763 f, quoted by Aeschin. 1, 129 (740 φημίξωσι: φημίζουσι v.l.).

738 antea   Adag. 3734 (Rumor publicus non omnino frustra est).

741 in oratione etc. Aeschin. 2, 144.


743 Aeschin. 2, 106 (744 δ᾿ ἐμοῦ).


748-749 In clamore ... mugitum Er. takes βοιωτιάζει to be synonymous with ἀναβοᾷ (shouts aloud), on the strength no doubt of καὶ γὰρ. His observation that Aeschines alludes to the bellowing of cattle is inspired by the etymological connection between βοιωτιάζει and βοῦς. According to him, the name Boeotus derives from βοῦς and ὦτα (ears) (Adag. 2148 'Boeotia auris', ASD II, 5, p. 132, ll. 649 f.). As a matter of fact Boeotia owes its name to its cattle-pastures; see Liddell-Scott, s.v.

749 βοιωτιάζειν etc. 'To side with the Boeotians' is indeed the sense required in the passage under discussion (see Aeschin. 3, 139). At the same time, a wordplay as suggested by Er. seems plausible.


751 Qui ... roboris See Adag. 2763 (Concordia fulciuntur opes etiam exiguae).

752 Enn. Ann. 525, quoted by Fest. p. 383 Lindsay. See Enn. Ann. 540 Skutsch.

755 Aldina aeditione See the Venice 1513 edition, col. 1214.


759 Irus ... abierunt See Adag. 576 (Iro, Codro pauperior).

760-761 Salacon ... safaconia Hesych. σαλάκων and σαλακωνία 98-99 Schmidt. Er. assumes the word σαλάκων to be a proper name. Hesychius merely observes that it denotes a person who is pretentious in spite of his poverty (ὁ πτωχὸς ἀλαζών).

761-765 Meminit Hesychius ... temere Hesych. σαλακωνίσαι 100.

764 Thphr., quoted by Hesychius; not found in the extant works of Theophrastus.

767 σαλάξαι etc. Er. means the verb σαλάσσω (move up and down).


769 Pind. Olymp. 9, 1. In MS (in the margin of f. 143v) Er. refers to this in the following way: "εἶδος Θ. in principio", to which he has added "ὅρα" as a reminder to himself that the passage needed further examination. The term εἶδος is used in the scholia in references to single poems of Pindar.

769-775 Archilochi ... alium canebat After scholia 1 a and 1 f.

775 Horatius Not Horace, but Ps. Acron on Hor. Ars 19. The anecdote is the subject of Adag. 419 (Simulare cupressum).

778 Meminit Aristophanis ... interpres See the scholia on Aristoph. Av. 1764 and those on Pind. Olymp. 9, 1.

778-779 Pind. Olymp. 9 (!), 1-3.


783 Antea ... ἀβρόχου See Adag. 3871 (Sicco iunco). There Er. writes correctly ὁλοσχοίνῳ ἀβρόχῳ (Aeschin. 2, 21). The combination περὶ ὁλοσχοίνου ἀβρόχου is strange. If it is to be taken with retulimus, the construction is a variation of the usual phrase "(antea) retulimus de ...". See Adag. 3512, 1. 143 "Retulimus alibi de fortitudine"; 3517, II. 192 f. "de tricis et apinis alibi retulimus"; 4118, ll. 265 f. "ante retulimus de calciamento". However, one might assume as well that Er. originally meant to write περὶ τῆς παραπρεσβείας (thereby quoting the title of Aeschines' speech), and that τῆς παραπρεσβείας has somehow fallen out. He then inadvertently wrote ὁλοσχοίνου ἀβρόχου instead of ὁλοσχοίνῳ ἀβρόχῳ. Er. worked hurriedly.

783-784 lexicographi Harpocrat. ὁλοσχοίνῳ (ὁλοεχίνους ed. Ald. 1527).

784 Qui adiecit scholia in Demosthenem The reference is not to the scholia on Demosthenes, but again to Harpocrat. loc. cit. For Er.' strange way of referring to Harpocration see ASD II, 1, p. 56, n.ll. 204-206.


786 Aeschin. 2, 21 (ὁλοσχοίνῳ).
     Thphr. Hist. plant. IV, 12, 1-2 (790 μελαγκρανίδα: μελαγκρανὶς v.l.).

788 scholiastes Harpocrat. loc. cit.

791 callositate Thphr. loc. cit.: the ὁλόσχοινος differs from other kinds of rush "εὐσαρκίᾳ" and "διὰ τὸ σαρκῶδες".

792 quod mollius sit et carnosius Thphr. loc. cit.; see also Plin. Nat. XXI, 113 "Utilissimus ad vitilia holoschoenus quia mollis et carnosus est."

792 Diosc. IV, 52.

794 asperius et callosius Diosc: σαρκωδεστέρα καὶ παχύτερα (τραχυτέρα v.l.); asperius matches τραχυτέρα and callosius σαρκωδεστέρα.

795 quidam ... ἐχῖνος The reference is to Harpocrat. loc. cit., who refers to the third species of rush as ὁλοέχινος. More precisely, this is the reading of the Aldine edition (the correct reading is ὁλόσχοινος). In what follows, Er. seeks to explain how Harpocration arrived at the erroneous reading ὁλοέχινος. - For the hedgehog see Adag. 1381 (Echino asperior) and 1859 (Totus echinus asper).

796 Theophrastus meminit carnositatis See n.l. 791.

799-800 dictum videtur etc. The implied subject is the phrase ὁλοσχοίνῳ ἀβρόχῳ in Aeschin. 2, 21.

801 appendicis The foregoing discussion, says Er., is an addition to Adag. 3871 (Sicco iunco).

     4082 Collect. 146 (Alcynoi apologus).

803-806 Ἀπόλογος ... habita Er. quotes the expression apologus Alcinoi (from Zenob. Ald. 41, Diogen. 2, 86, and Poll. VI, 120) in Adag. 1332. He there correctly explains that it is used of long, tedious, and fictitious stories of the kind that Odysseus told to Alcinous (Odyssey, IX-XII). In the present adage he doubts the correctness of his explanation in view of Aristot. Rhet. III, 16, 7. Er. misinterprets this passage.

804 commemoratus One would expect the form 'commemoratum'. Apparently Er. did not allow himself much time for a careful revision of his work.

807-810 Aristoteles ... veris Aristot. Rhet. III, 16, 7. Er.' erroneous interpretation is mainly due to his reading ἔτεσι (annis) instead of ἔπεσι, which here means 'lines'. The true sense of Aristotle's observation is: the long story told by Odysseus to Alcinous (Od. IX-XII), when told to Penelope, is comprised in ca. 60 lines (Od. XXIII, 264-284 and 310-343).

812 Aristot. loc. cit. (813 Ἀλκίνου: ἀλκινόου v.l.; ὅτι: ὅτε v.l.; 814 ἔπεσι: ἔτεσι v.l.).

814-815 Trapezontius etc. Georgius Trapezuntius translates the passage as follows (ed. Venetiis, 1523, p. 134): "Ad haec quae gesta non sunt, si commiserationem aut indignationem faciunt, perinde ut gesta narranda. Huius exemplum Alcinoi apologus, qui ad Penelopen in sexaginta esset annis factus". For this translation, made in 1443-1445, see J. Monfasani, Collectanea Trapezuntiana. Texts, Documents, and Bibliographies of George of Trebizond, Binghamton, N.Y., 1984, pp. 698 ff.

817 Gregorii Nazianzeni commentariis For this ghost commentary see Adag. 4075, p. 303, n.ll. 728-730. - In the beginning of 1533 Er. asked Bonifatius Amerbach for information about the meaning of the expression "Alcinoi apologus" (Ep. 2752). Shortly afterwards he calls his own explanation (as given in Adag. 4082) mere guesswork, "diuinatio" (Ep. 2754).


820 Pind. Olymp. 8, 72 (95) f. (821 πράξαις: πράξας ed. Rom. 1515).


828 Pind. Olymp. 8, 59 (77) f.


830 Disce, sed a doctis Cato, Dist. IV, 23.


835 Soph. Ant. 1327.


843 Soph. Ant. 1324 f.

848 prius   Adag. 850 (Fuimus Troes) and 244 (Nullus sum).


852 Soph. Ant. 1346 f.

861-862 Ant. 1242 f.


866 Soph. Ant. 1270 (867 οἴμ᾿ ὡς ἔοικας).

872-874 Ant. 1351 f. (μεγάλας πληγὰς; 873 ἀποτείσαντες).

878 Sero sapiunt Phryges Adag. 28.


880 De sera ... retulimus Adag. 958 (Sero Iupiter diphtheram inspexit), 1511 (Reperit deus nocentem), 3382 (Sero molunt deorum molae). De sera vindicta numinum is the tide of a treatise by Plutarch (Mor. 548 ff.).

881 Soph. Ant. 1103 f.



891 Soph. Ant. 1106.

895-897 Nemo ... culpandum See Adag. 214 (Feras, non culpes quod vitari non potest) and 2886 (Fatum ineuitabile).

897 Ducunt ... trahunt Sen. Epist. 107, 11. The line is commonly attributed to Cleanthes. Er.' mistaken reference to Seneca's tragedies (Tragicus) may be due to a lapse of memory. As regards his use of the epithet Tragicus for Seneca one may note that he often refers to Aristophanes as "Comicus". Both epithets are traditional and selfevident, if only because "vtraque Graecorum comoedia funditus intercidit vno excepto Aristophane, Latinorum item tragoedia praeter vnum Senecam" (Adag. 2001, ASD II, 5, p. 30, ll. 180 f.).


899 Soph. Ant. 1053.

903 Hor. Epist. II, 2, 102.

910 Omitte vatem   Adag. 1861.
     Ni pater esses Soph. Ant. 755, quoted in Adag. 1616.


913 Soph. Ant. 1055.


920 Soph. Ant. 1060.

926 Ant. 1059.

929 Non mouenda moues See Adag. 561.


931 Soph. Ant. 1029 f.

938 alibi   Adag. 154 (Iugulare mortuos).


940 Soph. Ant. 1044.


946-948 Hoc ... descendat Er. reacts against heterodox theologians who rejected (a) the doctrine of the incarnation of the Son of God in the Virgin Mary, and (b) the doctrine of the transubstantiation, that is, the conversion of the Eucharistic elements into the body and blood of Christ. Which sects did he have in mind? As regards (a) Er. is referring first and foremost to heretics in early Christianity. Indeed, reviewing early heresies in 1521, he denounces "qui negabant Christo fuisse corpus humanum; rursum qui detrahebant animam humanam; qui negabant esse vere passum; qui negabant eum natum ex virgine" (Ep. 1232, ll. 72-75). He attacks and refutes the same heresiarchs at length in his catechism (Explan. symboli, ASD V, 1, p. 247, l. 257-p. 252, l. 371), presenting his own (orthodox) view of the two natures of Christ in his manual for the preacher (Eccles. III, ASD V, 5, p. 276, ll. 687 ff.). Not only did His divine nature remain inviolate: Er. firmly believes that even the virginity of Mary was kept intact, both at the moment of conception and in giving birth (see Annot. in Lc. 2, 23, LB VI, 235 C; Explan. symboli, ASD V, 1, p. 220, ll. 443-446; p. 240, ll. 45-46 "citra virilem operam de Spiritu Sancto conceptus et illesa matris virginitate natus"; Comm. in hymn. Prud., LB V, 1340 E-F). As regards (b) Er. reacts against such Reformers as Carlstadt, Zwingli, and Oecolampadius, who around 1525 had put forward a symbolic, spiritualistic understanding of the Eucharist which rejected the corporeal presence of Christ (see Epp. 1620, ll. 81-85; 1621, 15-22; 1624, 29-35). He professed emphatically his own orthodoxy, insisting on the real presence (Epp. 1637; 1679, ll. 56-61). He exclaims in 1530 (Ep. 2328, ll. 121 f.): "Impius de Eucharistia error quanta celeritate quam late diuagatus est!" He even edited a medieval treatise on the subject, namely Alger's De veritate corporis et sanguinis Dominici in Eucharistia, which he provided with an elaborate preface (1530). One passage in it is strikingly similar to our adage: "si corpus Domini proiectum in coenum aut in latrinam, aut in ventrem hominis demissum sordidaretur, nulla re magis sordidaretur quam quum ab homine sumitur criminibus inquinato ... quemadmodum Deus, qui iuxta naturam non minus est in cloacis quam in coelis, nec laedi potest nec inquinari, ita nec corpus Domini glorificatum" (Ep. 2284, ll. 100-109). The issue of the Eucharist became almost an obsession for Er. in his last years (see Epp. 2615, ll. 266-300, and 2631). For a general outline see J.B. Payne, Er.: His Theology of the Sacraments, Peoria, Ill., 1970, pp. 138-154 and (for Er.' view of the two natures of Christ) pp. 54-64. In addition to the Reformers mentioned Er. may have had certain currents in the Radical Reformation in mind (for these see S. Voolstra, Het woord is vlees geworden. De melchioritisch-menniste incarnatieleer, Kampen, 1982; G.H. Williams, The Radical Reformation, Kirksville, Missouri, 19923, pp. 175-211).

950 neque sol etc. After Diogenes, quoted by Diog. Laert. VI, 63. See Apophth. III, Diogenes 175, LB IV, 187 F "'Et sol' inquit 'subit latrinas (τοὺς ἀποπάτους) nec tamen inquinatur'". Er. explains Diogenes' simile as follows: "Sensit probum virum non fieri deteriorem ob loci infamiam." Church fathers used precisely this simile of the sun to confirm the doctrine that the Son of God remained undefiled, even though he was born from a woman's body. See Orig. Contra Cels. VI, 73, SC 147, p. 362; Aug. De fide et symb. 4, 10, CSEL 41, pp. 13-14; Athan. De incarn. Verbi 17 and E.P. Meijering's commentary (Amsterdam, 1989) ad loc., p. 149.


952 Soph. Ant. 1031 f. (953 τοι Dawe: σοι codd.; 954 λέγοι: λέγει. v.l.).

957 Ant. 723.

960 Audi ... dicuntur See Adag. 946.

960-961 Hesiodio etc. Hes. Erg. 295. See Apophth. VII, Zeno Cittieus 34, LB IV, 344 F-345 A "Celebratissimam Hesiodi sententiam solebat inuertere. Quum enim ille primas tribuat ei qui per se sapiat, secundas qui recte admonenti obtemperet, Zeno ordine inuerso sic pronunciabat: Κεῖνος μὲν πανάριστος ὃς εὖ εἰπόντι πίθηται, / Ἐσθλὸς δ᾿ αὖ κᾀκεῖνος ὃς αὐτὸς πάντα νοήσῃ), id est Optimus ille quidem qui paret recta monenti, / Sed probus ille quoque est qui nouerit omnia per se."


963 Soph. Ant. 996.

970 In acie nouaculae Adag. 18.



972 Soph. Ant. 754.


979 Soph. Ant. 1028.

984 Prv. 16, 18.

988 Ant. 712 ff. (παρὰ ῥείθροισι; 991 ἐγκρατῆ).


1 Ante   Adag. 1010 (In eadem es naui).

2 Soph. Ant. 540 f.